What siderata to sow in the spring?
Some novice gardeners zealously destroy every excess mote in the garden. The ideal garden, in separate beds fenced with frames, resembles a flower garden. But the trouble is, if it is bad to know the biology of the soil, then over time the beautiful will become not fertile. And even the use of fertilizers does not save the situation. The soil becomes whitish, sandy, stony without watering, and when watering, water glides over its surface, almost without falling into the deep inner layers. These phenomena are witnesses to the "disease." It passes into the stage of "wild" soil, which has lost the main element of fertility - humus. There are many ways to improve and restore soil fertility, and siderates are the most affordable in private gardening.
Siderata - soil fertility bioplow
Siderata include any plants that, entering the soil, saturate it with rapidly decomposing organic matter. These include mainly annual plants, which in a short time (2-4 weeks) develop a powerful root system and aerial mass. When mowed in early spring, green manure plants are used as mulch or when planted in the soil, as a green fertilizer.
Siderata can be sown in separate crops or in mixed plantings, enhancing the positive effect on the soil. Their powerful root system loosens the soil, while enriching it with a large number of small organic residues (twigs, roots, etc.). In fact, the roots play the role of a plow, improving access to soil moisture and oxygen.
If garden crops with a crop annually remove nutrients from soil fertility from the soil, then green manure, returning to the soil in the form of green mass, enrich it, returning nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium and other macro- and microelements, without requiring the cost of their acquisition. It is green manure that in a short time increases the content of organic matter in the soil, upon decomposition of which humus is formed - the main component of soil fertility.
Siderata for spring sowing
Absolutely painless for the subsequent sowing or planting of garden plants, green manure crops can be sown in the fall after harvesting the main food plants and in the spring, before the start of the main work.
In early spring, as soon as the snow melts and the ground thaws from winter frosts, you can start sowing cold-resistant siderata. These include winter and spring rape, rye, oats, mustard, and phacelia. In their aboveground mass, a large amount of nitrogen accumulates, which in an accessible form remains in the soil after decay. The 2-week mass is mowed and closed by digging into the soil.
By May, under the planting of potatoes, the main seedlings (tomatoes, peppers, eggplant, cucumbers) and planting crops, the siderates have time to completely decompose. Usually, green manure is embedded in the soil 2-3 weeks before planting or sowing the main garden plants.
Selection of green manure for garden crops
In order to choose the right siderates for garden crops, several rules must be observed.
- You can not use siderates of the same family with the main culture. For example, rape, rapeseed for subsequent planting of cabbage or beets.
- It is inefficient to use the same green man several times in the same field. Their alternation is necessary.
- Cereal green manure is best used on clay soils. They well loosen the upper coalescing layer of soil.
- Seeding of siderates should not be allowed. The latest mowing period is the start of budding phase.
Table 1. Selection of green manure for spring sowing
|Name of garden crops||Siderat List|
|Potatoes, eggplant, peppers, cucumbers, zucchini, pumpkin||Rye, oats, lupine, oil radish, mustard, seradella, clover.|
|Beets, Carrots, Beans||Mustard, rape, oilseed radish, spring rape, peas, vetch.|
|Corn||phacelia, rape, spring rape, radish, mustard|
Table 1 shows the cold-resistant siderates for spring sowing for some late-planted crops. However, choosing siderat, you must also consider the type of soil (heavy, obstructed, clogged, infected with pests and diseases).
Properly selected green manure will help not only enrich the soil with nutrients, but also improve its physical condition, get rid of pests, etc. (tab. 2). All siderates are active helpers in weed control.
Table 2. The effect of green manure on soil performance (regardless of sowing time)
|Name of green manure||Soil indicators|
|Rye, oats, rapeseed, mustard, clover, alfalfa, vetch, vetch-oat mixture, vetch with rye, mustard with legumes||Compacted and poor nutrition for loosening and increasing soil fertility|
|A mixture of radish + rapeseed + mustard with the addition of calendula, marigold, oats. Vico-oatmeal mixture, rapeseed, legumes, phacelia, annual ryegrass||On all types of soil for the purpose of disinfection from rot and scab|
|Mustard, oil radish, calendula, nasturtium. Lupine, phacelia, clover mixed with flowering plants of marigold and calendula. Vico-oatmeal mixture, rapeseed, legumes, phacelia, annual ryegrass||On soils infected with pests, including wireworms and nematodes|
|Colza, rape, phacelia - drought tolerant||On dry soils|
|Phacelia, rape, rape, radish, mustard, and any other crops of the cruciferous family||On obstructed soils and areas with erosion processes|
|Seradella lupine||On waterlogged soils with close occurrence of groundwater|
|From the family of legumes (vetch, alfalfa, peas, fodder beans), cruciferous (winter rape, winter rape), cereal (rye, oats)||Organic, in need of increased nitrogen|
The listed sideral cultures and their mixtures are not dogma. Other siderates can be used both in monopoly crops and in mixtures. The main thing is to determine the priority task of sown green manure.
Siderate cultivation technology
In the fall, the main soil refueling is carried out. Introduce mineral and organic fertilizers. Dig up. In the spring, as soon as the snow melts and it will be possible to go out into the field, they begin to prepare and plant. With a rake, the blocks of land remaining from winter are leveled and siderat or a mixture of several sideral cultures is sown. Sowing can be done in 2 ways.
- Continuous sieving along the surface of the prepared soil, followed by rake.
- Private. Before sowing (if necessary) the soil is loosened to a depth of 4-7 cm. Furrows are cut with a hoe angle, seeds are sown and covered with a hoe or rake. A bed with sown green manure is covered with spruce branches or any mulch so that the birds do not peck out. Siderates are removed at the beginning of the appearance of buds or 2-3 weeks before the planting of the main crop.
In addition to solid and single-row, they use a wide-row method of sowing siderates for planting seedlings. For this sowing, you can sow siderat in 2 rows, leaving a 15 cm row spacing, then separate a wide row of 20-25 cm for seedlings and again fill 2 rows with siderat, etc.
Some gardeners plant seedlings directly in green manure in the holes. But, with any method of sowing, green manure must be cut before flowering. The cut mass is left immediately on the bed in the form of mulch, or before planting the main crop, it is embedded in the soil. It rots very quickly, enriching the soil with the necessary nutrients. During the season, instead of fertilizers, experienced gardeners sow sidereal crops several times.
Brief description of some green manure crops for spring sowing
Lupine, has a very long root system. The plant provides itself with nutrients from the deep layers of the soil, leaving the reserves of the upper layer to the main garden crops. It enriches the soil with nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium. Cut it off after 6-8 weeks at the beginning of budding and close it into the soil by 5-6 cm. After 2 weeks, re-seeded.
Spring vetch is suitable for peppers and eggplant. It is mowed 2 weeks before transplanting seedlings into the ground. The aboveground mass is used as mulch. The soil does not require additional treatment, as the young root system quickly rot in the soil.
Spring rape and rape are sown in late March - early April and can be mowed in a month.
For potatoes and root crops with green fertilizer, it is better to use mustard. The root system will improve air exchange in the soil, keep moisture from rapid evaporation. She is a good soil pest repeller. Mustard is cut when the main garden plant is equal to it in growth.
Phacelia, characterized by a very rapid increase in above-ground mass and unpretentiousness to cultivation. Good as a green fertilizer for vegetables. It is mowed after 45-50 days during the flowering period. It is ideal for sowing throughout the season on sandy and organic depleted soils.
Great siderat - buckwheat. Does not drain the soil. Enriched with phosphorus and potassium. It grows well on depleted and acidic soils, suppresses weeds, including wheat grass. The only drawback is the limited use in spring crops. This is a thermophilic plant. It is sown not earlier than May, but manages to increase a half-meter aboveground mass by the time of cutting.
It can be recommended as siderat for late potatoes and root crops as a second sowing. After cutting, the green mass is partially dripped into the soil and partially left on the surface as mulch. Buckwheat prevents the appearance of wireworms in the garden.